Annual Review of Immunology Volume 19 2001 by Annual Reviews

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1999. Analysis of adjuvant function by direct visualization of antigen presentation in vivo: endotoxin promotes accumulation of antigen-bearing dendritic cells in the T cell areas of lymphoid tissue. J. Immunol. 162:6552–61 DeSmedt T, Pajak B, Muraille E, Lespagnard L, Heinen E, Baetselier PD, Urbain J, Leo O, Moser M. 1996. Regulation of dendritic cell numbers and maturation by lipopolysaccharide in vivo. J. Exp. Med. 184:1413–24 de St Groth BF. 1998. The evolution of self-tolerance: a new cell arises to meet the challenge of self-reactivity.

This phenomenon is explained by regulated expression of chemokine receptors. Na¨ıve T cells express CCR7, which is specific for chemokines produced by stromal cells in the T cell areas (SLC and ELC), but not CXCR5, which is specific for BLC produced by follicular stromal cells (22). Cyster and coworkers showed that CXCR5 expression is induced on antigen-specific T cells several days after in vivo exposure to antigen and adjuvant, but not antigen alone (60). The requirement for adjuvant may be explained by the findings of Lane and colleagues that CXCR5 induction and follicular migration are dependent on signals through CD28 and OX40, the ligands for which (B7 and OX40 ligand) are induced on dendritic cells by inflammation (61).

Immunol. 19:23-45. org by HINARI on 09/01/07. For personal use only. to be taken up by lymphoid–tissue resident dendritic cells. In either case, antigen presentation would be carried out by dendritic cells that do not express high levels of costimulatory ligands. Lack of the anti-apoptotic effects of inflammatory cytokines would cause most of the T cells to die. The minimal signaling through CD28, IL-1 receptor, and receptors for differentiating cytokines such as IL-12 and IL-4, experienced in the primary response would limit IL-2 and effector lymphokine production potential in any memory cells that survived.

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