Alexander the Great: A Very Short Introduction by Hugh Bowden

By Hugh Bowden

Alexander the good turned king of Macedon in 336 BC, while he used to be in simple terms two decades outdated, and died on the age of 32, twelve years later. in the course of his reign he conquered the Achaemenid Persian Empire, the most important empire that had ever existed, top his military from Greece to Pakistan, and from the Libyan barren region to the steppes of valuable Asia. His meteoric occupation, as chief of an alliance of Greek towns, Pharaoh of Egypt, and King of Persia, had a profound impact at the international he moved via. Even in his lifetime his achievements grew to become mythical and within the centuries that following his tale used to be informed and retold all through Europe and the East. Greek turned the language of strength within the jap Mediterranean and lots more and plenty of the close to East, as robust Macedonian dynasts carved up Alexander's empire into kingdoms in their personal, underlaying the flourishing Hellenistic civilization that emerged after his death.

But what will we particularly learn about Alexander? during this Very brief creation, Hugh Bowden is going in the back of the standard historic bills of Alexander's lifestyles and profession. as an alternative, he makes a speciality of the facts from Alexander's personal time — letters from officers in Afghanistan, Babylonian diaries, files from Egyptian temples — to attempt and know the way Alexander looked as if it would those that encountered him. In doing so he additionally demonstrates the profound impact the legends of his existence have had on our old realizing and the debate they proceed to generate worldwide.

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The war god Ningirsu again "gave the order to Eanatum [to go to war], and he destroyed [the city ofj Umma" (PI 39-40).

This period shows clear evidence of increasing settlement size, social stratification, inter­ regional contacts, and monumental building. 5 meters thick. None the less, there is still sparse evidence for either fortification or war during this period. Despite its magnificent temple complex, Eridu seems to have been unfortified in the fifth millennium. Eridu may have been a sacrosanct ceremonial center during this period, supported by many surround villages and towns, rather than a politically oriented city-state.

It seems that a Illilitary component is not absolutely necessary, but the evidence fits more nicely together if we assume that Sumerian armies were involved to some degree in the Uruk expansion. It seems likely that warfare was a component in the expansion, but that the phenomenon was not primarily military in nature. This is reflected 1I10St clearly in the fact that some of the Sumerian colonies were strongly fortified; Habuba Kabira in Syria is the most striking example, with three-meter-thick mud-brick walls with numerous projecting square towers and strongly fortified gates (AS 190-7).

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