By Dr. Vern L. Bengtson PhD
During this quantity exclusive students discover and observe the theoretical types of continuity and discontinuity to their study in grownup improvement. The chapters handle different ways that continuity is tormented by swap over the existence path, in addition to how members negotiate and hold an important continuities by way of adaptive switch. issues contain grownup lifestyles crises, disease, sibling relationships, and gender id. each one bankruptcy is through an insightful remark. This booklet is a tribute to Bernice L. Neugarten for her contributions to the sphere of grownup improvement, such as the idea that of continuities. individuals comprise W. Andrew Achenbaum, Robert H. Binstock, James Birren, Bertram J. Cohler, Margaret Hellie Huyck, Boaz Kahana, Eva Kahana, Sheldon S. Tobin, Lillian E. Troll, Steven H. Zarit, and others.
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Additional info for Adulthood and Aging: Research on Continuities and Discontinuities
Proactivity is seen as playing an important role in preventive as well as corrective actions in response to stress. According to this model, even physically frail or impaired older persons have the potential for successfully responding to stresses by modifying their activities or environment. On the surface, the concept of proactive response to stress may appear paradoxical. The stress is, in fact, the stimulus that activates adaptive responses. Nevertheless, these adaptations may reflect creative problem solving when the older person proactively shapes the environment.
The proactive behaviors represent individual adaptations, which reflect personal opportunities for change. Accordingly, the model allows for changing and evolving responses propelled by personal motivation or by change. In what fundamental ways do dispositions and outcomes differ? Dispositional variables are defined as independent variables in our model, referring to trait-like and enduring personality orientations that provide the attitudinal and cognitive context of proactive behaviors. Outcomes, on the other hand, are described as states of being that result from successfully meeting challenges and stresses posed in the course of the aging process.
10. Psychological dispositions, proactive behaviors, and external resources all serve as conceptually and operationally distinct but related factors that reduce or buffer the impact of stress on outcomes of successful aging. Interrelationships of Elements of the Model Those who age well are expected to engage in proactive behaviors that serve preventive functions to reduce stress and enhance external resources, which may then be called upon in times of stress. Successful agers are also expected to establish corrective or ameliorative adaptations to deal with normative stresses once they have arisen.