By K. Hamblin
This booklet explores the adoption of 'active aging' guidelines by way of EU15 countries and the influence on older peoples' paintings and retirement coverage ideas. rules tested contain unemployment merits, energetic labour marketplace rules, partial pension receipt, pension ideas, early retirement and incentives for deferral.
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Extra resources for Active Ageing in the European Union: Policy Convergence and Divergence
Institutions can be and often are sources of agency by providing continuity and coherence of biographical orientations. Welfare programs, in particular, provide competencies, resources, opportunities, and individual rights that empower individuals outside and inside of the market and the family (Leisering, 2003: 219). This book therefore also addresses the degree of choice individuals have regarding their labour and examines whether certain groups are disproportionately constrained within the context of the shift towards recommodifying welfare policies.
However, it has been argued there is therefore variation internationally in terms of the effect of care on women’s employment. Bettio and Plantenga (2004) argue national care strategies have implications in terms of social and economic outcomes for women. In their analysis of European countries they found the cluster containing Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal and Ireland, with its lack of provision for care, inhibited female participation in the labour market which is particularly pronounced among those with low-skills whose employment would not allow for the purchase of care services.
As a result of the economic crises of the 1970s and 1980s, Casey argues, early exit has become entrenched in many welfare states due to the establishment of early retirement schemes. 4 Intergenerational solidarity and the reserve army of labour However, the aforementioned gloomy predictions regarding the future of the welfare state in the face of demographic ageing and the impact on intergenerational solidarity have their critics. For Estes (1999a), ageing policy is a battleground with opposing forces of capitalism and democracy; she argues the former utilises the discourses of the ‘demographic timebomb’ to erode the welfare rights secured by the latter.