A Manchu grammar, with analysed texts by P. G. von Mollendorff

By P. G. von Mollendorff

A Manchu Grammar: with Analysed Texts
Paul Georg von Mollendorff

Contents

I-Phonology
--Alphabet (Table) Pronunciation
--Harmony of Vowels
--Diphthongs and Triphthongs
--Word adjustments and international phrases

II-Etymology
--Nouns and Adjectives, Terminations, Plural Case Affixes
--Pronouns
--Numerals
--Verbs, Derivation, Moods and Tenses, Irregularities, Negation
--Adverbs
--Postpositions
--Conjunctions
--Interjections

III-Syntax

Manchu Texts with Translation and research

Index of Affixes and phrases

Appendix--European Literature Treating on Manchu

Introduction

There is as but no grammar of the Manchu language in English. Wylie's translation of Tsing Wan Ki Mung, Shanghai, 1855, a type of Mauchu hand-book for using chinese language, even though invaluable and entire of curiosity, is certainly not a grammar.

The normal curiosity taken in each language will, after all, be additionally prolonged to Manchu; nonetheless a number of phrases appear essential to exhibit the actual usefulness of its examine.

There exist in all approximately 25O works in Manchu, the vast majority of which arc translations from the chinese language. They include translations from the Classics, a few old and metaphysical works, literary essays, collections of well-known writers, novels, poetry, legislation and rules, Imperial edicts, dictionaries, word books, ere. every one of these translations are very good, yet they're all literal. done less than the eyes of clever princes, they shape a competent expression of the which means of the chinese language textual content and feature consequently a correct to attractiveness equivalent to that loved through commentaries of excellent writers. Manchu being infinitely more uncomplicated to benefit than chinese language, those translations are a very good support in the direction of acquiring a transparent perception into chinese language syntax, and students like Stanislas Julien, who owed the notable precision in his renderings to his wisdom of Manchu, have again and again pointed this out. In a letter addressed to Dr. Legge he alludes to the learn of Manchu as being of serious guidance in translating the Classics. Dr. Legge, notwithstanding, within the preface to his translation of the Shuking, suggested himself opposed to it. the explanations complicated by way of this nice pupil aren't very cogent, and, actually, no longer figuring out the language, he was once not often powerfuble to pass judgement on. yet, no matter if he have been correct, others could be in a special place. Dr. Legge was once possibly extra lucky or extra talented than most folks and had an intensive mastery of chinese language on the time whilst St. Julien wrote to him. those that locate chinese language more challenging have a tendency to think about the Manchu translations a good support.

This grammar being meant for the sensible goal of guiding the coed in...

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Koszyk: koszyka& nóż: noża& palec: palca& kwiatek: kwiatka& ząb: zęba& Kraków: Krakowa Example Nominative Genitive To jest Paryż. Kościoły Paryża są cudowne. This is Paris. The churches of Paris are magnificent. Hotel jest mały. Znam numer hotelu. The hotel is small. I know the telephone number of the hotel. List A – Masculine ‘non-alive’ nouns taking ending -a in genitive singular 1 Fruit and vegetables, banan, pomidor 2 Vehicles, ford, mercedes (car names have no capitals). 3 Units of currency, dolar, funt, frank.

Dziewczęta mają ________. UNIT 5 Verbs with present tense -am, -a, -ają A conjugation is a group of verbs which form their tenses identically or similarly. In Polish, the conjugation of a verb is decided, not by its infinitive ending, but by the endings in the I, he and they parts of its present tense. As in all languages, some verbs are irregular. In the largest Polish conjugation the infinitive ends in -ać. The notable present tense endings are -am, -a, -ają. Unusually, mieć (Unit 4) also belongs here.

Pamiętasz (ja)? Pamiętasz mnie? Czekacie na (ona)? Czekacie na nią? 1 Zapraszam (wy) na koncert. 2 Paweł narzeka na (oni). 3 Marysia i Ola czekają na (on). 4 Ania pyta o (ona). 5 Basia odwiedza (ona). 6 Pan i pani Kwiecień witają (on). 7 Feliks zna (my). 8 Pamiętamy (ty). 9 Maryla kocha (ja). 10 Olek zaprasza (ty) na zabawę. Exercise 4 Rewrite in the plural. 1 Nauczycielka narzeka na nią. 6 Kolega zaprasza ją. 2 Chłopiec kocha mnie. 7 Kocham ciebie. 3 Czekam na ciebie. 8 Ojciec narzeka na niego.

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