A History of Brewing in Holland 900-1900: Economy, by Richard W. Unger

By Richard W. Unger

This identify deals a finished background of brewing in Holland from the beginnings of huge scale creation on the finish of the 1st millennium via medieval enlargement, the growth of the Renaissance, and the disastrous decline of the seventeenth and 18th centuries. It closes with the revival of the within the period of industrialization. significant technical thoughts, from Germany, within the 14th and back within the nineteenth century, made it attainable for brewing to take a number one function within the Dutch economic system. the difference of these advancements went on constantly less than the cautious supervision of the country. counting on the large documents of city and provincial governments the writer strains the cooperation in addition to stress among brewers and public experts spanning 1000 years.

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37-39, 89; Gerald Stefke, Ein Stddtisches Exportgewerbe Des Spdtmittelaters in seiner Entfaltung und ersten Bliite Untersuchungen Zjir Geschichte Der Hamburger Seebrauerei Des 14. Jahrhunderts (Hamburg, 1979), pp. 63-83, 129-131, xlvi-liv. Phillippe Dollinger, La Hanse (Paris, 1964), p. , pp. 88-90, 95, 117-118. THE MEDIEVAL TRANSFORMATION 29 the 78 beer importers there came from Hamburg. 9 The group in Amsterdam had formed their own hanze even before 1358 and maintained a chapel in the Oude Kerk.

Traders imported raw materials from overseas, they were worked up in combination with domestic materials by native workers and the final products were then exported by traders to markets throughout Europe. To understand the success of the Dutch economy, its character and structure, and indeed to understand the pattern of economic development from the late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution some appreciation of what happened in brewing is a necessity. While the examination of yet one more Dutch industry does help in understanding what happened to the economy of Holland the examination of brewing indicates the more funda- 8 INTRODUCTION mental structural metamorphosis as well as the critical role of technical change in the evolution not just of the Dutch but also of the European economy in the years up to the Industrial Revolution.

11 The emerging policy on beer in the fourteenth century was consistent with all the other efforts to promote commerce and to increase the flow of tax income. In 1321, the Count of Holland, William III, prohibited the import of Hamburg and eastern beer into three districts in the county. The count got nothing from the import of beer and presumably that was the reason for the prohibition. Already on 22 June, 1319, the count had lifted the toll freedom which he had granted in 1313 to the merchants from the Oestlande for goods imported by sea, and had imposed a toll on beer, grain and all other goods.

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