A Grammar of Qiang: With Annotated Texts and Glossary by Professor (Chair) Randy J Lapolla, Chenglong Huang

By Professor (Chair) Randy J Lapolla, Chenglong Huang

Qiang is a Tibeto-Burman language of southwest China, spoken through approximately 70,000 Qiang and Tibetan humans in northern Sichuan Province. This e-book, the 1st book-length description of the Qiang language in English, comprises not just the reference grammar, but additionally an ethnological evaluation, numerous totally analyzed texts (mostly conventional tales) and an annotated thesaurus. The language is verb ultimate, and agglutinative (prefixing and suffixing), with a really advanced phonological process and either head-marking and based marking morphology. it is going to be of use to typologists, comparativists, Sino-Tibetanists, anthropologists, and linguists more often than not.

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2 we discuss the various roles the noun phrase can have in the clause and the different types of marking it takes when it has those roles. 1. Structure The structure of the noun phrase is generally head-initial, though a genitive phrase or relative clause (or both) precedes the head noun. The maximum structure of a simple noun phrase is as in Figure 2: GEN phrase + Rel. clause + Noun + ADJ + DEM/DEF + (NUM + CL)/PL Figure 2. The structure of the Qiang noun phrase Any combination of the above elements is possible, as long as they follow the order given above, though a numeral must be followed by a classifier.

15) a. b. c. d. e. f. g. w˙ m˙ ph˙ ˙˙håji Æbirdfl + Æfirefl + Æforestfl + DIR + DIR + Ætenfl + Ætwo + ®pu -xu x®u pi tse t®i -su Æflockfl Æsmokefl Æroe deerfl Æunclefl Ælook atfl Æonefl22 Ætenfl > > > > > > > wu®pu mux‘u phux®u ipi itse hat®i jusu Æ(wild) pigeonfl Æsmokefl Æwild animalfl Æunclefl Æsawfl Æelevenfl Ætwentyfl R-coloring is also involved in vowel harmony: if the second syllable of a compound or prefix + root form has r-coloring, in many cases the first syllable also takes on r-coloring. 16) a. Ùuå Æfivefl + khefi Æhundredfl > Ùuåfi-khefi Æfive hundredfl23 b.

10) a. ¿å- DIR + t®hå Ædeepfl + -Â CAUS > ¿|åt®h˙Â Ædeepenfl b. t˙- DIR + watsi Æshortfl > t˙w|åtsi Æbecome shortfl c. 10b-c) that there is a three-way pattern of stress and vowel form: without any prefix, the first vowel of the root is [a], with an unstressed prefix it is [å], and with a stressed prefix, it is [˙]. In general there is a trochaic pattern of stress,21 which leads to the loss of second syllables in bisyllabic words, but the stress of a particular derived form depends on the number and type of syllables that appear in the particular word, and this effects the realization of the vowels.

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