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16). For stratification, the stratum to which any potential sample member belongs must be known before selection, that is, that sample member must be selected from one of the designated populations. This does not preclude the use of quota sampling in conjunction with (usually geographic) stratification, though a stratified quota sample is still essentially a quota sample and subject to all the limitations that presents. Disproportionate stratification Disproportionate stratification, the effect of which is normally corrected by weighting at the analysis stage, can be employed for a number of reasons, depending on the objectives of the survey.
However, even here some adjustment of the optimised scheme will often be made to take other considerations into account. 10 Post-stratification In stratification proper, the strata are predefined and sampled separately: it is possible to allocate each person selected to a stratum prior to the interview. However, there are many cases where information about the composition of the population is available and where it would be desirable to allocate potential respondents to a stratum but where there is no information available in advance about the individuals to allow this.
Design effects can be estimated for a range of more complex survey designs and this will be explored in detail in Chapter 3. 2 The selection of the strata must be considered carefully and based on some knowledge of the issues involved. Variables selected for stratification must be those for which reliable information is available. In surveys of the general population, geography is often used as a stratifier. The overall area to be covered by the survey is divided into a number of areas of known population, which is often administratively convenient as well as statistically beneficial.